Tuesday, June 10, 2008

What Do We Know About GOLD DINAR?

Gold Dinar

A Gold Dinar is a gold coin first issued in 77 AH (696-7 CE) by Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. The name “dinar” is derived from denarius, a Roman currency. The weight of the dinar is 1 mithqal (4.25 grams).

First Dated Coins

The first dated coins that can be assigned to the Muslims are copies of silver Dirhams of the Sasanian Yezdigird III, struck during the Caliphate of 'Uthman, radiallahu anhu. These coins differ from the original ones in that an Arabic inscription is found in the obverse margins, normally reading "In the Name of Allah". The subsequent series was issued using types based on drachmas of Khusru II, whose coins probably represented a significant proportion of the currency in circulation. In parallel with the later Khusru-type Arab-Sasanian coins first issued under the Well-Guided Caliphs of Islam, a more extensive series was struck with Khusru's name replaced by that of the local Arab governor or, in two cases, that of the Caliph. Historical evidence makes it clear that most of these coins bear Hijra dates. The earliest Muslim copper coins are anonymous and undated but a series exists which may have been issued during the Caliphates of 'Uthman or 'Ali, radiallahu anhum. These are crude copies of Byzantine 12-nummi pieces of Heraclius from Alexandria.

The First Silver Dirham

Silver Dirham
Silver Dirham

By the year 75 AH/ 695 CE Abd al-Malik had decided on changes to the coinage. A scattering of patterned pieces in silver exist from this date, based on Sasanian prototypes but with distinctive Arabic reverses. This experiment, which maintained the Sasanian weight standard of 3.5-4.0 grams was not proceeded with and in 79 AH/698 CE a completely new type of silver coin was struck at 14 mints to a new nominal weight of 2.97 grams. Unlike the contemporary gold coinage, this figure does not seem to have been achieved in practice. The average weight of sixty undamaged specimens of 79-84 AH is only 2.71 grams, a figure very close to that for a unique coin of 79 AH struck with no mint name (as was the standard procedure for the gold Dinars produced in Damascus). These new coins which bore the name of 'Dirham', established the style of the Arab-Sasanian predecessors at 25 to 28 mm. in diameter. Their design is composed of Arabic inscriptions surrounded by circles and annulets. On each side there is a three or four line legend with a single circular inscription. Outside this are three line circles with, at first, five annulets surrounding them. The side normally taken as the obverse has as its central legend the Kalima or shahada: "There is no god except Allah alone, there is no partner with Him'. Around it is the mint/ date formula reading "In the Name of Allah: this Dirham was struck in [mint name e.g. Damascus] in the year [e.g. 79 AH]". The reverse has a four line central inscription taken from the Surah 112 of the Quran; "Allahu Ahad, Ahallu-Samad, Lam yalid wa lam yulad wa lam yakul-lahu kufu-an ahad"'. The marginal legend states: "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, he was sent with guidance and the religion of truth to make it prevail over every other religion, averse though the idolaters may be" (Quran 9:33)

The First Gold Dinar

The gold coins were first struck to the contemporary standard of 4.4 grams and with one or more Arabic Standing figures on the obverse and an Arabic legend on the reverse. Dated coins exist from 74 AH and are named as 'Dinars'. These experimental issues were replaced in 77 AH, except in North Africa and Spain, by completely epigraphical designs very similar to the designs adopted for the silver pieces but with a shorter reverse legend and no annulets or inner circles. This type was used without appreciable change for the whole of Umayyad period, the coins being struck to a new and carefully controlled standard of 4.25 grams. This weight was reputed to be based on the average of the current Byzantine solidi, was called a mithqal, a term used earlier for 1/72 of a ratl. Evidence of the importance attached to the close control of the new Dinars is provided by the existence of glass weights, mainly from Egypt. They usually show the governor's name, sometimes the date but all marked with coin denomination.

The issues in gold from North Africa began as copies of the coins of Heraclius and his son (but with an abbreviated Kalima in Latin), the reverse 'cross on steps' losing in most cases its cross piece. Dinars, halves and thirds were struck, all to the new weight standard. Later coins are dated by the Indiction Number Method, from Indiction II (85/4) changing to the Hijra date in Roman numerals in 94 AH with Arabic phrases appearing in the field from 97 AH. In the year 100, North Africa came into line with the eastern issues although the mint is named as Ifriquiyah. The legends are shorter and the reverse has a new central inscription: "In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate". This was used also on the coins from Al-Andalus, and on the half and third Dinars, most of which show no mint but may well have been struck in Al-Andalus.


Gold Dinar
Gold Dinar

Face Value Purity Weight Weight Toz* Diameter
1 Dinar 91.7% Gold 4.25 grams 0.1367 Toz 23 mm
2 Dinars 91.7% Gold 8.50 grams 0.2733 Toz 26 mm
8 Dinars 91.7% Gold 34.00 grams 1.0932 Toz 32 mm
1 Dirham 99.9% Silver 3.00 grams 0.0965 Toz 25 mm
5 Dirhams 99.9% Silver 15.00 grams 0.4823 Toz 27 mm
10 Dirhams 99.9% Silver 30.00 grams 0.9646 Toz 41 mm
* The exact weight of the coins is defined in grams; conversion to approximate troy ounces is given for informational purposes.

What are the Dinar & Dirham

The Islamic Dinar is a specific weight
of 22k gold equivalent to 4.25 grammes.
The Islamic Dirham is a specific weight
of pure silver equivalent to 3.0 grammes.

According to Islamic Law...

The Islamic Dinar is a specific weight of 22k gold (917.) equivalent to 4.25 grams.

The Islamic Dirham is a specific weight of pure silver equivalent to 3.0 grams.

Umar Ibn al-Khattab established the known standard relationship between them based on their weights: "7 dinars must be equivalent to 10 dirhams."

"The Revelation undertook to mention them and attached many judgements to them, for example zakat, marriage, and hudud, etc., therefore within the Revelation they have to have a reality and specific measure for assessment [of zakat, etc.] upon which its judgements may be based rather than on the non-shari'i [other coins].

Know that there is consensus [ijma] since the beginning of Islam and the age of the Companions and the Followers that the dirham of the shari'ah is that of which ten weigh seven mithqals [weight of the dinar] of gold. . . The weight of a mithqal of gold is seventy-two grains of barley, so that the dirham which is seven-tenths of it is fifty and two-fifths grains. All these measurements are firmly established by consensus." Ibn Khaldun, Al-Muqaddimah

How are the Islamic dinar used?

1.- The Islamic Dinar can be used to save because they are wealth in themselves.

2.- They are used to pay zakat and dowry as they are requisite within Islamic Law.

3.- They are used to buy and sell since they are a legitimate medium of exchange.


  1. I agree with what Nizam Sakurabi said. The fundamental cause of all the disasterous we are having now is because of the fiat money we use and the system we practise.

    This is something that is not easy to understand especially for people who don't have economics background. Even people who study economics, not all can fully understand the real cause and how it relates to the current fiat money system.

    And is not easy to explain everything in details. People may get confused. The best thing is, to educate people on general idea why we should abandon the fiat moeny and replace it with Gold Dinar & Silver Dirham.

  2. Nizam propose you contact our lecturer Mr. Abdul Halim Abd Hamid at: ahalim@mmu.edu.my

  3. Bro
    TQ datang, aku pun tak berapa mahir dalam dinar, darham ni. Sekarang dah baca artikel ko dapat lah ilmu sikit. teruskan lah menulis benda begini. Aku tulis apa dalam otak ketika itu aje.

    Tapi, Ali Baba Bujang Lapok dah pakai lama !